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Firefighter II - MOD A - Study Guide

Discussion in 'EMS Lounge' started by MariaCatEMT, Feb 2, 2005.

  1. MariaCatEMT

    MariaCatEMT Forum Asst. Chief

    I made this study guide for the Firefighter II - MOD A exam, here it is for anyone who may like to use it, feel free to copy and paste, print it off, whatever you need. I am working on a study guide for MOD B right now, and will eventually have MOD C. Take care everyone.



    Contents: Fire Department Organization
    Fire Behavior
    Portable Fire Extinguishers
    Fire Hose and Appliances


    1. The four basic organizational principles to operate effectively as a team member:

    A. UNITY OF COMMAND – principle that a person can report to only one supervisor.
    B. SPAN OF CONTROL – number of personnel one individual can effectively manage.
    C. DIVISION OF LABOR – dividing large jobs into small jobs. (to assign responsibility, prevent duplication of effort, make specific and clear-cut assignments)
    D. DISCIPLINE – an organization’s responsibility to provide the direction needed to satisfy the goals and objectives it has identified.

    2. Identifying the Organization:

    A. ADMINISTRATION – responsible for the day-to-day operations of the department. Consists of the chief and any support staff.
    B. LINE – responsible for fire suppression, rescue, and in some departments: emergency medical services, hazardous materials response, and any number of technical rescue services. Consists of officer and firefighters assigned to operational shifts or crews.
    C. STAFF – responsible for support operations of the department. Differs from department to department. May include training, fire prevention, public education, maintenance, and any other support services of the departments.
    D. ChiefOfficersFirefighters
    E. AdministrationLineStaff

    3. Organizational Structure:

    A. ENGINE COMPANY – deploys hose lines for fire attack and exposure protection.
    B. TRUCK (LADDER) COMPANY – performs forcible entry, search and rescue, ventilation, salvage and overhaul, and provides access to upper levels of a structure.
    C. RESCUE SQUAD/COMPANY – typically is responsible for the removal of victims from areas of danger or entrapment.
    D. BRUSH COMPANY – extinguishes wild land fires and protects structures in the urban-interface.
    E. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMPANY – responds to and mitigates hazardous materials incidents.
    F. EMERGENCY MEDICAL COMPANY – provides emergency medical care and support to patients.

    4. What is the firefighter’s role (as a member of the organization)?

    A. To meet minimum requirements for employment or membership of his/her specific department.
    B. Respond to alarms, operate firefighting equipment, lay and connect hose, maneuver nozzles and direct fire streams, carry, raise, and climb ladders, use extinguishers, and all hand tools.
    C. Respond to medical emergencies and other patient care requests.
    D. Ventilate burning buildings by opening windows and skylights, or by cutting holes in roofs or floors.
    E. Search, recover and remove people from danger and administer first aid.
    F. Perform salvage and overhaul operations.
    G. Relay instructions, orders and information, and give locations of alarms received from dispatch.
    H. Exercise precautions to avoid injury while performing duties.
    I. Exercise loss control measures to avoid unnecessary damage or loss of property.
    J. Ensure safekeeping and proper care of all department property.
    K. Perform assigned fire inspections of buildings and structures for compliance with fire prevention codes and ordinances.
    L. Other duties as assigned.
    M. Meet the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 1001, Standard for Firefighter Professional Qualifications.
    N. Know department organization, operation, and standard operating procedures (SOP’s).
    O. Know the district or city street system and physical layout.
    P. Meet minimum health and physical fitness standards.
    Q. Attend training courses, read, study assigned materials related to firefighting, fire prevention, hazardous materials and emergency medical care.

    5. What is the mission of the fire service?

    A. To practice life safety, incident stabilization, and property conservation.

    6. What is the mission of the local fire department?

    A. Save lives.
    B. Protect property.

    7. What is the function of standard operating procedures (SOP’s)?

    A. Standard set of actions.
    B. Predetermined plan for nearly every type of emergency.
    C. Safety is the number one priority.
    D. Based on similarity of fires.
    E. Require and assign specific procedures to be carried out.
    F. Is the core of incident planning.
    G. Used at fires, emergency medical scenes and non-emergency situations.

    8. Fire department rules and regulations:

    A. Everyday conduct of department business.
    B. Involves items such as personnel matters, wearing of uniforms, and schedule of shifts.
    C. Includes administrative policies and procedures.
    D. POLCIY – a guide to decision making.
    E. PROCEDURE – a detailed guide to action.
    F. Examples of general department rules or regulations: Requiring SCBA for all crewmembers, using pocket masks when performing CPR, first officer on scene assumes command.

    9. Basic components of incident management systems ( IMS ):

    A. Common terminology.*
    B. Modular organization.*
    C. Integrated communications.*
    D. Unified command structure.*
    E. Consolidated action plan.*
    F. Manageable span of control.*
    G. Pre-designated incident facilities.*
    H. Comprehensive resource management.*
    I. Personal accountability system.*
    J. CommandSafetyLiaisonInformation
    K. CommandOperationsPlanningLogisticsFinance/Administration
    L. Command – the person in overall command of an incident is the Incident Commander ( IC ), and is ultimately responsible for all incident activities.
    M. Command Staff – Incident Commander, Safety Officer, Liaison Officer, and Public Information Officer.
    N. Operations – officer reports directly to the incident commander and is responsible for managing all operations that directly affect the primary mission.
    O. Planning – responsible for the collection, evaluation, dissemination, and use of information concerning development of the incident.
    P. Logistics – responsible for providing the facilities, services and materials necessary to support the incident.
    Q. Finance/Administration – responsibility for tracking and documenting all costs and financial aspects of the incident.

    10. Incident Management System ( IMS ) terms:

    A. Command – function of directing, ordering, and controlling resources by virtue of explicit legal, agency or delegated authority.
    B. Division – geographic designation assigning responsibility for all operations within a defined area.
    C. Group – Functional designations (forcible entry, salvage, ventilation, etc)
    D. Sector – geographic or functional assignment that is equivalent to a division or a group or both.
    E. Supervisor – someone in command of a division, group or sector.

    11. Incident Action Plan ( IAP ):

    A. Plan for managing an emergency.
    B. A plan should be formulated for every incident.
    C. Identifies strategic goals and tactical objectives to eliminate the problem.
    D. Can be written (large, complex incidents) or unwritten (small, routine incidents).

    12. List some other agencies that may respond to emergencies:

    A. EMS – responsible for treating patients.
    B. Law Enforcement – responsible for maintaining flow of traffic during rescue operations, investigating accidents on public roadways, etc.
    C. Utility Companies – shutting off power, water, gas; emergency repairs, have trained crews for emergencies.
    D. Hospitals – may send personnel to mass casualty incidents, for triage and treatment on the scene.
    E. Public health department.
    F. Coroner
    G. Medical Examiner
    H. EPA
    I. ESDA
    J. FEMA
    K. IMERT

    13. Components of a member assistance program ( EAP ):

    A. Provides referrals to appropriate service providers.
    B. Critical incident stress debriefing ( CISD ).
    C. Assistance with problems that can affect job performance (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, personal problems, interpersonal problems, stress, depression, anxiety, divorce, career development, nutrition, hypertension, smoking cessation, weight control, etc)

    14. List the two types of training records that are required to be maintained by the Division of Personnel Standards and Education:

    A. Learning objectives.
    B. Practical evaluations and written exams.

    15. List the four rules that apply to testing for certification:

    A. Time frame.
    B. Prerequisites.
    C. Local procedures.
    D. State procedures.

    16. Firefighters must meet the requirement for NFPA 1001:

    A. NFPA 1001 (National Fire Protection Association) Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications.*


    1. Fire Terms:

    A. FIRE – self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a fuel that produces heat and light.
    B. COMBUSTION – self-sustaining chemical reaction yielding energy or products that cause further reactions.
    C. The terms, fire and combustion, are often used interchangeably, most often used in fire. Fire is a form of combustion.
    D. HEAT – the form of energy that raises temperature, the energy transferred from one body to another when the temperature of the bodies are different, can be measured in the amount of work it does, energy component of the fire tetrahedron that causes pyrolysis or vaporization of fuels, produces ignitable vapors, provides energy for ignition, causes continuous production and ignition of vapors so the combustion process can continue.
    E. IGNITION TEMPERATURE – the minimum temperature to which a fuel, in air, must be heated to start self-sustained combustion without a separate ignition source. Describes the period when the four elements of the fire tetrahedron come together and combustion begins. It can be piloted (spark or flame) or non-piloted (self-heating). All fires are the result of some type of ignition.
    F. LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT ( LFL ) – minimum concentration of fuel vapor and air that will ignite. Limits below the lower flammable limit (LFL) are called too “lean” to burn.
    G. UPPER FLAMMABLE LIMIT ( UFL ) – concentration above which combustion cannot take place. Limits above the upper flammable limit (UFL) are called too “rich” to burn.
    H. FLAMMABLE (EXPLOSIVE) RANGE – the range between the lower flammable limit and upper flammable limit.
    I. The terms, flammable and explosive, are often used interchangeably.
    J. VAPOR DENSITY – weight of a given volume of pure vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Vapor density less than one indicates a vapor lighter than air. Vapor density greater than one indicates a vapor heavier than air.
    K. SOLUBILITY – degree to which a solid, liquid or gas dissolves in a solvent (usually water).

    2. Fire Triangle:

    A. Heat
    B. Fuel
    C. Oxygen
    D. Representative of surface combustion (smoldering fire)

    3. Fire Tetrahedron:*

    A. Heat
    B. Reducing Agent (Fuel)
    C. Oxygen
    D. Chemical Chain Reaction
    E. Representative of the flaming mode of combustion.

    4. Describe the relationship of the concentration of oxygen to combustibility and life safety:

    A. In compartmentalized fires, lower oxygen levels are needed as temperatures increase, flaming combustion can occur at post-flashover conditions.
    B. In oxygen rich (above 21%) areas, materials that burn at normal levels may ignite sooner and burn faster.
    C. Some petroleum materials can auto ignite in oxygen rich atmospheres.
    D. Oxygen rich fires are more difficult to extinguish.
    E. Oxygen is the primary oxidizing agent (in fires).
    F. Normal oxygen content in room air is 21%.
    G. Oxygen levels as low as 14% can support a compartmental fire.
    H. Room air – 21%, Unconsciousness – 9%, Death – 6%
    I. Concentration of oxygen is a safety hazard to firefighters!
    J. Concentrations below 18% cause fire decrease, and concentrations below 15% generally do not support a fire (with exception of compartmental fires).

    5. Products of Combustion:

    A. HEAT – responsible for spread of fire, causes burns and other injuries.
    B. SMOKE – mixture of carbon particles and fire gases. Makeup varies from fuel to fuel, all smoke is considered toxic. The material burning has a direct influence on the amount and color of smoke.
    1. Carbon Monoxide ( CO )
    2. Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 )
    3. Hydrogen Cyanide
    4. Sulfur Dioxide
    5. Nitrogen
    6. Other gases depending on fuel being burned
    D. FLAME (light) – the more complete the combustion, the less luminous the flame. Flame is absent in smoldering fires.

    6. Heat Transfer:

    A. CONDUCTION – heat conducted from one body to another either by direct contact or by an intervening heat medium. It depends upon the conductor (metal – good, drywall – poor) Examples: metal plumbing components or electrical conduit. *(direct contact, intervening heat conducting medium).
    B. CONVECTION – transfer of heat energy by the movement of air or liquid. Heated gases rise (mushrooming). Examples: fire traveling thru elevator shafts, stairwells, balloon frame walls. Direct flame contact is actually a form of convection heat transfer. *(transfer of heat thru air or liquid).
    C. RADIATION – transfer by heat waves. Travels thru space until it reaches an opaque object. Light colors reflect radiant heat, dark colors absorb radiant heat. Major source of fire spread to exposures, important to protect exposures from radiant heat. *(transfer by heat waves).

    7. The Law of Heat Flow:

    A. Heat flows from a hot substance to a cold substance.
    B. A colder substance will absorb heat until temperatures are equal.
    C. WarmerCoolerTill Equal

    8. Three Physical States of Matter (in which fuels are commonly found):

    A. SOLID – have definite size and shape, the more surface area exposed, the less energy is required for ignition (surface to mass ratio). The position of the fuel affects the way it burns (vertical position allows faster burning than horizontal position). Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition (of solid fuel) of a substance through the action of heat.
    B. LIQUID – fuel gases are generated by a process called vaporization, which is the transformation of a liquid to its vapor or gaseous state. Energy input is in the form of heat, and requires less energy than solid fuels. With liquids, the surface to volume ratio is important (the larger the spill, the more vapor).
    C. GASEOUS (GAS) – can be the most dangerous of all fuel types because they are already in the natural state required for ignition. Must be mixed with air in the proper proportion (flammable range) to burn.

    9. Phases of Fire:

    A. IINCIPIENT (IGNITION) – occurs when the four elements of the fire tetrahedron come together and combustion begins. Can be caused by a spark or flame. Can occur when material reaches its ignition temperature through self-heating. Limited to original materials ignited. Small quantity of fire gases being generated. Flame temperature about 1000 degrees F. yet the room temperature is only slightly increased. Easiest to extinguish.
    B. GROWTH/FREEBURNING – fire plume begins to form above the burning fuel. Begins to draw air from the surrounding space into the plume. Hot gases rise, hit the ceiling and spread until they reach the walls. As the fire grows, the overall temperature increases.
    C. ROLLOVER/FLAMOVER – the ignition of combustible gases, which have spread thru the fire area. Differs from flashover in that only combustible gases are burning. One reason why firefighters stay low when entering a burning building. Flame spread movement of flame away from source of ignition.
    D. FLASHOVER – transition between the growth stage and fully developed stage of a compartment fire. Occurs when flame flash over the entire surface of a room. Occurs because of ALL the materials in the room reaching their ignition temperatures. Involves all exposed combustible surfaces in the compartment. Temperatures range from 900 degrees F. to 1200 degrees F. Survivability is unlikely.
    E. FULLY DEVELOPED – all combustible materials in the compartment are involved, releasing the maximum amount of heat and producing large amounts of fire gases. Hot unburned gases are flowing from the compartment and igniting when they enter a space with abundant air.
    F. DECAY/HOT SMOLDERING FIRE – as fuel is consumed, the rate of heat decreases. Amount of fire diminishes and temperatures begin to decline. Glowing embers can maintain moderately high temperatures.
    G. BACKDRAFT – explosion or rapid burning of gases. Occurs when oxygen is introduced into a smoldering fire. Often caused by improper ventilation. Warning signs of back draft: pressurized smoke exiting small openings, dense gray-yellow smoke, confinement and excessive heat, little or no visible flame, smoke leaving the building in “puffs” (puffs out and then sucked back in), smoke stained windows, muffled sounds, sudden rapid inward movement of air when an opening is made. The situation can be made less dangerous by proper ventilation. Open at the highest point involved. Heated smoke and gases will be released, reducing the possibility of an explosion (back draft).
    H. FLAME SPREAD – affected by position of fuel(s).

    10. Safety tips for fire hazards:

    A. Stay low when entering burning buildings/rooms.
    B. Check closed doors for heat.
    C. Proper ventilation (top).
    D. Proper gear (full bunker gear and SCBA).
    E. Do not disturb the thermal layer.
    F. Avoid elevators, and when using stairs, spread your weight edge to edge.
    G. Do not disturb the thermal layer. (don’t apply water to the upper thermal layer, properly ventilate at the top, direct fire stream at the fire base)

    11. Classifications of Fires:

    A. CLASS A – wood, paper, rubber, plastic.
    B. CLASS B – liquids, greases, gases.
    C. CLASS C – live electrical equipment.


    1. Hazardous environments requiring the use of SCBA:

    A. Smoke.
    B. Oxygen deficiency.
    C. Elevated temperatures.

    2. What are some examples of commonly found fire gases?

    A. Phosgene – colorless, tasteless, disagreeable odor. Produced when Freon comes in contact with flame.
    B. Carbon Monoxide ( CO ) – colorless, odorless. More fire deaths occur from exposure to carbon monoxide than any other product of combustion. Symptoms include: headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cherry red skin.
    C. Hydrogen Chloride – colorless, pungent odor. Symptoms include: labored breathing and suffocation.
    D. Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 ) – nonflammable, colorless, odorless. Can cause death within a few minutes at concentrations greater than 10% - 12%.
    E. Nitrogen Dioxide – reddish brown in color. Symptoms include: arterial dilation, blood pressure variations, dizziness and headache.
    F. Hydrogen Cyanide – colorless, almond odor. Deadly!

    3. List two physical requirements of an SCBA user:

    A. Physical – sound physical condition, maximize amount of work that can be performed, maximize available air supply.
    B. Agility – must be agile as the unit will restrict wearer’s movements, will affect balance.

    4. What are the limitations of using an SCBA?

    A. Visibility.
    B. Mobility.

    5. What are the basic components of an SCBA?

    A. Harness.
    B. Air cylinder.
    C. Regulator.
    D. Face Piece.

    6. SCBA at Eastern Prairie are NOT closed circuit SCBA’s.

    7. The low air alarm will sound when one quarter of the air remains in the SCBA.

    8. SCBA at Easter Prairie hold 45 cubic feet of air, and the maximum PSI is 2216. Our SCBA are rated for 30 minutes, however expected use is 12-18 minutes.

    9. What are daily inspection items on the SCBA? (per NFPA 1404 and NFPA 1500)

    A. Gauges are within 100 PSI of each other.
    B. Low pressure alarm sounds.
    C. Straps in good condition, and fully extended.
    D. All hoses are connected, and tight.
    E. SCBA inspection should be done after each use, weekly, monthly and annually.
    F. Full cylinder (minimum 90%------below 2100)
    G. Face piece is clean and operational.
    H. Operate bypass and mainline valves, return bypass to closed position after testing.

    10. The regulator reduces cylinder PSI (ours is 2216) to slightly above atmospheric pressure (approximately 14.7 PSI).

    11. Cascade Storage System (SCBA recharging system):

    A. Three or more 300 cubic foot cylinders.
    B. Used for storage of compressed air.
    C. Open cylinders one at a time during filling of SCBA bottles.

    12. Full protective equipment:

    A. Helmut – protects head from impact and punctures.
    B. Protective Hood – protects portions of face, ears and neck from burns.
    C. Coat & Trousers – protects trunk and limbs against cuts, abrasions and burns.
    D. Gloves – protects hands from cuts, wounds and burns.
    E. Boots – protects feet from burns and punctures.
    F. Eye Protection – protects eyes from flying particles or liquids.
    G. Hearing Protection – limits noise induced damage to ears.
    H. SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) – protects face and lungs from toxic smoke and products of combustion.
    I. PASS (personal alert safety system) – emits loud shriek if the firefighter should collapse or remain motionless for approximately 30 seconds.

    13. Each piece of the protective equipment ensemble should be conspicuously labeled, the label should contain the following information: “This…meets the…requirements of NFPA 1971, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Firefighting (1997).

    14. Please refer to your own study guide, Firefighter II manual (Chapter 4, pages 79 – 121), and SCBA manual for emergency procedures in the event of SCBA failure, rescue procedures, donning and doffing of SCBA and recharging air cylinders.


    1. Extinguisher classifications and types of fires:

    A. CLASS A – ordinary combustibles (wood, paper, clothing), color – green, symbol – triangle, picture – trash can and camp fire. Rated 1-A thru 40-A. 1-A requires 1 ¼ (one and a quarter) gallons of water. Rating based on tests conducted by: Underwriters Laboratories Inc (UL) and Underwriters Laboratories Inc of Canada (ULC). Tests determine extinguishing capability.
    B. CLASS B – flammable liquids (gasoline, kerosene, alcohol), color – red, symbol – square, picture – gas can. Rated 1-B thru 640-B. Rating based on square foot area that a non-expert operator can extinguish. Non-expert expected to extinguish 1 square foot for each numerical.
    C. CLASS C – energized electrical equipment (live), color – blue, symbol – circle, picture – plug and socket. No fire test conducted. Tested only for non-conductivity. Receive only the letter rating.
    D. CLASS D – combustible metals (magnesium, sodium chloride, lithium), color – yellow, symbol – star, picture – none. No numerical rating given. Considerations for rating: reaction between metal and agent, toxicity of agent, toxicity of fumes produced and the products of combustion, time to allow metal to burn out without fire suppression efforts versus time to extinguish. Cannot be given a multipurpose rating.

    2. Extinguishers and Application Procedures:

    A. Water (pump tank) Class A Extinguisher – sizes from 1 ½ to 5 gallons, range is 30 – 40 feet, discharge time is 45 seconds to 3 minutes, agent discharged by pumping action of operator, needs freeze protection.
    B. Stored Pressure Water Extinguisher (air pressurized water) (APW) Class A Extinguisher – sizes from 1 ¼ to 2 ½ gallons, range is 30 – 40 feet, discharge time is 30 – 60 seconds, agent discharged by compressed air stored in the tank, needs freeze protection.
    C. Aqueous Film Foaming Foam (AFFF) Class A & B Extinguisher – most are 2 ½ gallons, range is 20 – 25 feet, discharge time is 50 seconds, agent is discharged by compressed air stored in tank, needs freeze protection.
    D. Dry Chemical (hand carried) Ratings:
    1. Ordinary – Class B/C
    2. Multipurpose – Class A/B/C
    3. Sizes from 2 ½ to 30 pounds.
    4. Range – 5-20 feet
    5. Discharge Time – 10 to 25 seconds
    6. Agent is discharged by either stored pressure or cartridge.
    7. Does not need freeze protection.
    8. Ordinary Agents (Class B/C):
    a. sodium bicarbonate
    b. potassium bicarbonate
    c. ammonium phosphate
    d. potassium chloride
    9. Multipurpose Agents (Class A/B/C):
    a. mono-ammonium phosphate
    b. barium sulfate
    E. Carbon Dioxide (hand carried) – Class B/C, sizes 2 to 20 pounds, range is 3 to 6 feet, discharge time is 8 to 30 seconds, agent is discharged by its own stored pressure, avoid contact with skin, large horn, no gauge.

    3. Common Defects of Fire Extinguishers:

    A. Corroded or damaged shells.
    B. Obstructed hoses, horns or nozzles.
    C. Illegible labels and instructions.
    D. Depleted or incorrect stored pressure.
    E. Unit not completely full.
    F. Damaged nozzles, hoses and fittings.
    G. Tampering of lock pins and tamper seals.
    H. Inspection tag out of date.
    I. Leaking hoses, gaskets, nozzles and loose labels.

    4. Please refer to your own study guide and Firefighter II manual (Chapter 5, Pages 126 – 144) for extinguishing operation methods.


    1. Identify Types of Ladders:

    A. FOLDING/ATTIC LADDER – hinged rungs so one beam rests on the other. Usually 10 feet long. Equipped with safety shoes.
    B. ROOF LADDER – straight ladder. Equipped with hooks on one end for anchoring to ridge. Usually 12 – 24 feet long.
    C. EXTENSION LADDER – adjustable in length. Base or bed section with one or more fly sections. Heavier than a single ladder. Range from 12 to 39 feet.
    D. STRAIGHT/WALL LADDER – non-adjustable, one section. Usually 12, 14, 16, 18 or 24 feet in length.
    E. AERIAL DEVICES – vehicle mounted. 50 – 135 feet in length. Divided into aerial ladders.

    2. Various Components of Ladders:

    A. Base Section – bed or bottom section of an extension ladder.
    B. Beam – side rails of a ladder.
    C. Beam Bolts – bolts that pass thru both rails at the truss block of a wooden ladder to tie the two truss rails together.
    D. Butt (or heel) – bottom end of a ladder which is placed on the ground.
    E. Butt Spurs – metal safety plates or spikes attached to the butt end of a ground ladder’s beam.
    F. Dogs (pawls or locks) – devices attached to the inside of the beams or extensions.
    G. Fly – upper and top sections of an extension ladder or aerial device.
    H. Guides – wood or metal strips on an extension ladder that guide the fly section while being raised.
    I. Halyard – rope or cable used for hoisting and lowering the fly sections of a ground ladder.
    J. Heat Sensor Label – label affixed to the ladder beam near the tip to provide a warning that the ladder has been subjected to excessive heat.
    K. Hooks – pair of sharp curved devices at the top of a roof ladder that fold outward from each beam.
    L. Protection Plates – plates fastened to a ladder to prevent wear at points where it comes in contact with mounting brackets.
    M. Pulley – small grooved wheel through which the halyard is drawn on an extension ladder.
    N. Rails – lengthwise member of a trussed ladder beam that are separated by truss blocks.
    O. Rungs – cross members between the beams on which the climber climbs.
    P. Safety Shoes – rubber or neoprene foot plates attached to the butt end of the beams of a ground ladder.
    Q. Spurs – metal points at the ends of the staypoles.
    R. Staypoles (tormentor poles) – poles attached to long extension ladders to assist in raising and steadying the ladder.
    S. Stops – wood or metal pieces that prevent the fly section from being extended too far.
    T. Tie Rods – metal rods running from one beam to another.
    U. Toggles – hinge device by which a staypole is attached to a ladder.
    V. Top (or tip) – extreme top of a ladder.
    W. Truss Blocks – separation pieces between the rails of a trussed ladder.

    3. Uses of Ladders:

    A. Folding/Attic Ladders – attic scuttle holes, small rooms, closets.
    B. Roof Ladders – anchor ladder over ridge, lies flat on the roof allowing firefighter to stand on ladder while performing roof work, can use as a single wall ladder.
    C. Extension Ladders – provides access to windows and roofs within limits of its length.
    D. Straight/Wall Ladders – quick access to windows and roofs on one end of two story buildings.
    E. Aerial Devices – aerial ladder. Used for rescue, ventilation, elevated master stream application and gaining access to upper levels. There are two types of elevating platforms------telescoping and articulating (hinged)------platforms are attached to both with same use as an aerial ladder.

    4. Please refer to your own study guide and Firefighter II manual (Chapter 9, Pages 281-307) for ladder carries, positioning ladders, procedures for climbing and working on ladders, ladder raises, etc.


    1. Construction Features of Hose:

    A. Materials from which hoses are made:
    1. cotton
    2. nylon
    3. rayon vinyl
    4. poly-mired vinyl
    5. polyester
    B. Construction methods:
    1. braided
    2. wrapped
    3. woven jacket
    4. poly-mired covered

    2. Types of Fire Hoses:

    A. Booster – braided, ¾ to 1 inch
    B. Attack – woven jacket or poly-mired, 1 ½ to 3 inch
    C. Supply and Relay – woven jacket or poly-mired, 2 ½ to 5 inch
    D. Intake – woven jacket, poly-mired or wrapped, hard and soft suction, 2 ½ to 6 inch, also known as soft or hard sleeve.

    3. Fire Hose Damage and Prevention:

    A. Mechanical Damage – worn places, rips, abrasions, cracked inner linings, crushed or damaged couplings. Prevention – avoid laying over sharp corners, provide warning devices in traffic lanes, prevent vehicles from running over hose, close nozzles slowly, change position if bends in hose when reloading, provide chafing blocks, avoid excessive pressure on hose lines.
    B. Thermal Damage – charring, melting, drying of rubber lining. Prevention – protect hose from heat and fire, use moderate temperature for drying, keep outside jacket dry, run water thru unused hose to prolong life, don’t dry on hot pavement, keep away from vehicle exhaust, use bed covers to shield from sun.
    C. Mildew and Mold – causes decay and deterioration. Prevention – all wet hoses should be removed from apparatus, replaced and dried. Hose should be removed, inspected, swept and reloaded if not used every 30 days. Exercise hose every 30 days. Run water thru hose every 90 days.
    D. Chemical Damage – exposure to petroleum products, run off, acids or alkalis. Prevention – scrub all traces of acid with baking soda and water. Periodically remove hose from apparatus, wash it, run water thru it. Properly test hose suspected of damage. Avoid laying hose in gutter. Properly dispose of hose exposed to hazardous materials that cannot be decontaminated.

    4. Fire Hose Couplings:

    A. Can be made from brass alloy, aluminum alloy, or magnesium.
    B. Various types of couplings – threaded, storz-type, quarter turn, oil field rocker jug, snap (or jones).
    C. Manufacture techniques for couplings – Drop-forged (hardened), Extruded (weaker than drop-forged) and Cast (weakest)
    D. Threaded – three piece or five piece (has reducers).
    E. Parts of couplings – Shank – also called tailpiece, bowl or shell, male has rocker lugs or pins, Swivel – contains female threads, permits coupling without turning hose, rockers, slugs, pins, Highbee cut and Indicator – on both couplings, special thread designed to provide a positive connection between couplings, indicator is a shallow indentation on one of the lugs.
    F. Lugs – pin, rocker, recessed.
    G. Storz-type – referred to as sexless (no distinct male or female couplings), can be coupled with a 1/3 turn, locking components has grooved lugs and insert rings built into the swivel.

    5. Hose Rolls:

    A. Straight Roll
    B. Donut Roll
    C. Twin Donut Roll
    D. Self-locking Twin Donut Roll

    6. Hose Lay:

    A. Forward Hose Lay
    B. Reverse Hose Lay

    7. Hose Carries:

    A. Shoulder Loads (from flat or horseshoe)
    B. Shoulder Loads (from flat or accordion)
    C. Hose carry/drag

    8. Hose Loading:

    A. Accordion Load
    B. Horseshoe Load
    C. Flat Load
    D. Reverse Horseshoe Load
    E. Straight Finish
    F. Minuteman Load
    G. Triple Layer Load

    9. Please refer to your study guide and Firefighter II manual ( Chapter 12, Pages 397 to 439) for further operational procedures and descriptions.

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