Discussion in 'Advanced Medical Discussions' started by phillybadboy, Jul 16, 2012.
i know most atp is made in the mitochondria, but where is most of it located or stored?
ATP itself to my knowledge isn't stored, it is used up fairly quickly after it is made. Energy storage is accomplished mainly through glycogen and fats.
if we were to look in the cell what part of the cell would have more atp there?
The area immediately surrounding the mitochondria maybe? Like other have said, to the best of my knowledge, it is used up fairly quickly. When the cell needs a lot, it makes a lot, when it don't, well, it don't. I think of ATP less of a fuel and more of a by-product of the true fuel, glucose, that simply transfers the energy to the cell. Much like in an engine, the gasoline is the fuel, but it transfers it energy through the drive train to the wheels.
Remember, when ATP is used up is becomes ADP, indicating it has lost a phosphate atom. The molecule then becomes positively charged due to the unfilled orbital that the phosphate once filled. The phosphate is added back during the Kerbs cycle in the mitochondria.
ATP isn't stored, but there are other things that are stored in the body that contain potential energy which can be used to quickly or slowly make ATP. If you need a large amount of ATP on a very short notice (IE a sudden sprint), your body has stores of a molecule stored all over your body and muscles called phosphocreatine, which can be metabolized and broken down. Breaking this molecule down creates energy, which is harnessed to convert ADP (used up ATP) back into ATP. However, your phosphocreatine stores last only about 10 seconds when you're working at your maximum. After that, your physical power output will drop significantly as your body goes into anaerobic metabolism. Whenever you supplement yourself with creatine from GNC or a place like that, you're trying to up your phosphocreatine stores for greater physical power output during those 10 seconds.
ATP is constantly being made by your body by one of 3 ways, Aerobic metabolism, Anaerobic metabolism, and Phosphagen Metabolism. If your body wasn't constantly producing ATP all the muscles in your body would go into a state of rigor, where the muscles tighten up (IE Rigor Mortis upon death) and can't relax. At rest or during endurance exercise, you are using Aerobic metabolism, which is done in the mitochondria.
When your mitochondria cant keep up with the energy demand that your body requires, you start going into Anaerobic metabolism, which occurs in a process called glycolysis, which takes place within the cell. End products of glycolysis are lactic acid, which I'm sure many of you are familiar with. The lactic acid that is produced, is then shuttled to the mitochondria, where it is further broken down into many more ATP.
If you guys have any questions, feel free to ask me. I just graduated with a degree in Exercise Biology, so its nice to jog my memory sometimes .
so atp isn't "stored", glycogen is stored, atp is constantly made and used. atp is made in the mitochondria but where is most of it located in the cell?(in the cytoplasm, mitochochondria or some other part of the cell?)?
Its hard to say exactly where ATP is located, because it usually moves around to wherever it is needed. For example, if you were lifting a heavy weight; as soon as the ATP is made, it is destined for the muscle fibers that are generating the force. ATP doesn't sit around.
One thing about mitochondria however, is that it is where the vast majority of our ATP is produced, especially during low- moderate intensity activity.
ATP is constantly made and used, thats right. ATP isn't stored. After ATP made from the mitochondria (or wherever else it can be made), it usually travels to a part of the cell where it is immediately used by some kind of protein, or in some process, such as a proton pump.
ATP is constantly made at a "baseline" or standard rate, to allow the body do things necessary to sustain life (IE, heart beating or operating a proton pump). When more ATP is needed, such as during exercise, various hormones help shuttle more ingredients to the mitochondria, and the mitochondria begin to produce more ATP.
Also, ATP isn't always made in the mitochondria, it can be made anywhere in the cell, so long as the enzymes and proteins that break down energy sources (IE glucose, phosphocreatine) are present. however, the mitochondria is the most efficient at creating ATP. Typically one molecule of glucose if broken down in the mitochondria yields 16x (not sure about the exact number) more ATP than it would if the glucose was broken down by enzymes alone, outside of the mitochondria.
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